The Israeli-Palestinian conflict of today traces back to the Balfour Declaration of 1917, which the British government publicly stated would establish a national home for the Jewish people in Palestine. This move "promised the Zionist movement a country where Palestinian Arab natives made up more than 90 percent of the population" (Al Jazeera, 2023). Palestinians were shocked and confused at the changing demographics and the dispensing of large portions of their land to newly immigrating jews (many of who were fleeing Nazism in Europe).
A summary of the entire situation can be read here
The recent Hamas attack has spurred a new, tragic development in this decades-long conflict, The Avalon Project does a good job covering the 1988 Hamas Covenant. More information on Hamas and their goals can be found on the "Videos" page of this guide.